A weight loss surgery helps an individual lose weight, eliminating any possible risks associated with carry excess weight. Weight loss surgeries work in varying and distinct ways. This includes restriction, which reduces the number of calories that one can consume by limiting the size of food that the stomach can hold. The other mode is malabsorption, which similarly minimizes the amount of calories and consequent nutrients that the body can duly absorb. This is achieved by shortening some part of the intestine.
Many weight loss surgeries are available to patients, but this article looks at the five main ones.
- Duodenal Switch with Biliopancreatic Diversion
This procedure entails placing the duodenal much more distant and further along the ileum. The gall bladder is also removed. This procedure results to very few calories being absorbed by the body from the food consumed. The stomach also secretes very little amounts of hunger-causing hormones, making the individual not to feel hungry fast.
The duodenal switch also results to overall health improvement by reducing the risk of some ailments such as cancer after surgery. It is also used to treat some metabolic problems and even diabetes. Most doctors however avoid it, as it is tough and laboring to perform. It consumes more time and requires extensive follow up after surgery.
- Gastric band
In biological and technical terms, gastric band is referred to as the laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. The procedure entails the creation of a small pouch with the use of a gastric band well placed around the stomach. The pouch can be filled by very little amounts of food, limiting the amount of food that one can eat in order to fill it. One feels full very fast, eliminating the need to consume great amounts of food.
The gastric band is fastened after surgery by connecting it to a device placed under the skin, which is at the center of the chest. In order to attain the desired results, the band is tightened severally. This is done to prevent any need of anesthesia by injecting the device with some salt water with the use of a needle through the skin.
- Sleeve Gastrectomy
In this procedure, a vast part of the stomach is reduced, making it very small in comparison to the way it was prior to the surgery. Just as with the aforementioned surgeries, one feels full very fast thus massively reducing the amount of food that once consumes.
The now smaller stomach will secrete very small amounts of hormones that cause hunger, making you not feel hungry as fast as you used to be.
- Gastric Bypass
Gastric bypass is also known as Roux-en-y gastric bypass. The stomach is subdivided into two parts. A small pouch is created at the top of the stomach with the use of surgical staples. The rest of the stomach is bypassed by directly connecting the pouch to the small intestine. Similarly, it hugely reduces the amount of food needed for one to fill full. This ultimately ensures you consume less food, and thus you will absorb very little calories. Your body shall also absorb very few minerals.
Despite this, gastric bypass has a coupling disadvantage in that if one does not adhere to a very good and strict diet, it could cause dumping syndrome or even possible malnutrition.
- Intra-Gastric Balloon
In contrast to other types of surgeries, intra-gastric balloon is quite temporary, as it is only left in the stomach for a maximum of six months. Your doctor fills the balloon with air and then places into the stomach with the use of a very narrow tube, which goes down through the mouth. The balloon is inflated upon reaching the stomach. It is also vital to note that there exists two types of balloons namely the single and the dual balloon. Your choice depends the size of the stomach plus the results you are looking to achieve.
The aforementioned surgeries all have different advantages and disadvantages. The duodenal switch is the most effective, as it results to much more weight loss followed by gastric sleeve and gastric bypass. Gastric balloon only results to 25-30% of the surplus body weight after a year compared to duodenal switch, gastric sleeve and gastric bypass where one loses around 70% of the surplus weight under the same time or duration. It is therefore vital to do some extensive research and doctor consultations before opting for any kind of the highlighted surgeries.